|Thai-Online||Date: Monday, 06.05.2019, 19:01 | Message # 1|
|So, a frequent question about HIV / AIDS in Thailand. Distribution and state response.|
After the first case of Thailand’s HIV / AIDS was officially reported in 1984 year, the incidence of infection in the country increased in constant progression. In 1991, the government adopted a plan with a strategy to combat the disease, thanks to which the number of new infections has decreased in recent years. However, the spread of HIV continued to remain at almost the same level from the beginning of 2003 to 2005 of the year (with 1,4 percent) with a large number of people receiving antiviral therapy.
The first cases of HIV / AIDS in Thailand occurred primarily among men who had sex with other men, that is, among homosexuals. Further, the virus quickly spread and passed on Wednesday to drug addicts who injected drugs intravenously. And then the infection occurred among those involved in prostitution. Between 2003 and 2005 over the years there have been an increase in the spread of HIV infection: from 17 to 28 percent among homosexuals in Bangkok. In addition, the prevalence among drug users remains to vary from 30 to 50 percent of the total number of patients. In 2005, more than 40 percent of new infections were found among women, most of whom were sexually infected through long-term relationships with their boyfriends. Money and low condom use rates in the use of sexual services in illegal body trade activities are factors responsible for the spread of HIV in this category. Although the spread of HIV / AIDS in Thailand has slightly decreased, the epidemic is heading towards the general population as a whole. Therefore, there is an expedient need for efforts that could later reduce the incidence and be in line with forecasts.
From 2011, drug addicts are in Thailand among the most vulnerable category for HIV / AIDS, with the number of patients ranging from 40 000 to 97 300 people.
Several factors are constantly affecting Thailand, putting it at risk of increasing the number of HIV / AIDS diseases. Awareness and awareness of HIV status in the country is very low. So, according to the 2006 study of the year, written in UNAIDS reports: for example, 80 percent of homosexuals with an HIV-positive indicator were never tested, or they thought they had negative HIV. A significant proportion of drug addicts - 35 percent, according to one study, uses non-sterile injecting products. Another study noted an increased tendency for irregular condom use by prostitutes. In some cases, female sex workers reported that they or their clients used condoms in slightly more than half of their sexual relationships. Finally, premarital sex, which once was promoted to taboo, is now becoming a practice among young Thais, but only 20-30 percent of young couples use condoms regularly (according to the United Nations Development Program).
According to the World Health Organization, the risk of tuberculosis is rapidly increasing in Thailand, with 63 new cases of 100,000 people, according to 2005 data for the year. Approximately 7,6 percent of patients with tuberculosis are co-infected with HIV. The disease of tuberculosis together with HIV infection creates a problem and difficulties in the process of treating and monitoring both diseases.
The initial reaction to the epidemic and the actions of Thailand were rather weak. However, starting from the time when the Department of the State AIDS Program moved from the Ministry of Health to the Office of the Prime Minister in 1991, the country's measures and measures to prevent HIV / AIDS were recognized as one of the most effective in the world. The Ninth State Plan (on 2002-2006) of Economic and Social Development emphasized the importance of introducing and engaging a humanitarian approach that was implemented as reforms in the health care system, especially in the field of treatment. Thailand’s AIDS policy began with citizen education and preventive measures. In addition, a system of medical, community, social and counseling services is being developed to improve the quality of life of people living with HIV / AIDS. The sector of medical biotechnology, medicine, and the study of AIDS vaccines is developing. Work is underway involving public and private sector. The whole program complex is designed to prevent and alleviate the situation with HIV / AIDS.
Actions to prevent and treat HIV / AIDS on the part of the Thai government include a public education campaign that targets the general public and the population at risk, improved treatment of sexually transmitted infections, outreach conversations with men who prefer and choose sex. prostitution services, advertising the use of a condom, and requirements that sex workers undergo monthly tests for infections and provide a report the results of these analyzes.
In 2004, Thailand received a grant from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria to prevent cases of HIV / AIDS among drug abusers, to increase funding for their treatment and support. The objectives of the grant are to train leaders within drug communities in setting up therapy centers, training medical staff, police, prison officials and high-level officials and providing support based on education, counseling, referral services, providing support for conducting surveys, analyzes and HIV testing.
Since the change of government in 2006, Thailand has re-supported its HIV / AIDS prevention and disease control efforts. In 2007, Thailand adopted a three-year strategic plan that focuses on increasing HIV prevention efforts, especially for people at risk of becoming infected with HIV, as well as for people who are “difficult to access” geographically, infrastructurally, or in any other way. At the beginning of 2007, the government announced that it had issued a large number of licenses for HIV medications. So the government continues to fight for widespread access to treatment. Since the end of 2006, 88% of people infected with HIV have received antiviral therapy, according to UNAIDS.
Despite efforts to tackle HIV strategies, condom use, as before, remains fairly low. The Disease Control Division (DDC) estimates 2010 for the year: 60% of sexually active adolescents, more than 50% of homosexual men and 40% of sex workers do not regularly use this necessary means of prevention and protection against the virus.
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in cooperation with the Ministry of Health of Thailand, conducted a study to establish the effectiveness of providing medicines to people who informally take daily doses of Tenofovir anti-retrovirus drugs in order to prevent. The results of the study were published in mid-June 2013 of the year - they showed that in 48,9% among the study group that took the drug, the risk of infection with the virus decreased, compared with the control group that took placebo.
The supervisor of this study, in his publication in the medical journal Lancet, commented on the results of his work: “Now we know that prevention before potentially dangerous actions can be a truly vital opportunity for HIV prevention in people with a very high risk of infection. Whether through sexual contact or by intravenous drug administration. "
* AIDS is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that develops on the background of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus).